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Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus Arrosadia, Pamplona 31006, Spain13. Enhanced understanding of muscle stem cell biology and function is essential for developing technologies and strategies to augment the metabolic efficiency and muscle hypertrophy of growing animals potentially leading to greater efficiency and reduced environmental impacts of animal production, while concomitantly improving product uniformity and consumer acceptance and enjoyment of muscle foods.

Animal Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA14. Keywords: Skeletal muscle stem cells, Satellite cells, Adipocytes, Adipofibroblasts, Embryogenesis, Postnatal myogenesis.

However, it seems likely that derivation methods and assays of pluripotency for ES cells from agricultural species will improve as knowledge from the rapidly-expanding stem cell field is obtained and applied.

In fact, a unique opportunity exists for the development of ES cells from agricultural species since they can be assayed for germline competency by injecting them into embryos and implantation into surrogate mothers, an assay that is prohibited for human ES cells. Adipose tissue growth and cellularity: changes in bovine adipocyte size and number.

Almost fifty years of research with isolated satellite cells has focused on the activation and inhibition of their proliferation [4], regulation of their activity in vitro [5], the interaction of these cells with other cells like angiogenic cells [6], the identification of their subpopulation potential [2, 7, 8], and their potential as vectors in genetic therapies [9]. Acceleration by triiodothyronine of adipose conversion of rat preadipocytes from two anatomical locations.

More recently, it has become apparent that satellite cells exhibit more plasticity than was previous thought, since they can differentiate into cells with adipocyte features [10, 11].

In mammals, the majority of all skeletal muscle structures are finalized during the fetal stage of development. Relative contributions of acetate, lactate and glucose to lipogenesis in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

Primary myofibers are first formed in the embryonic stage, followed by the formation of secondary myofibers in the mid and late gestation in humans, and late and neonatal stages in mice [23, 24].

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA12. Available from muscle stem cells from food-producing animals are of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University/OARDC, Wooster, OH 44691, USA How to cite this article: Dodson MV, Hausman GJ, Guan L, Du M, Rasmussen TP, Poulos SP, Mir P, Bergen WG, Fernyhough ME, Mc Farland DC, Rhoads RP, Soret B, Reecy JM, Velleman SG, Jiang Z. Stem cells, cells that maintain their ability to replicate and can differentiate into various cell types, have been important in understanding cell regulation.

In addition, these cells are used therapeutically with continued research hoping to increase their therapeutic potential.

In addition, it should be possible to use mouse ES cells (and their exquisite ability to be manipulated genetically), as a platform for basic research into satellite cell development and function.

In the future, if germline competent ES cells from agricultural species are developed, knowledge from mouse ES cell research may be translated into applied research into the dynamics of skeletal muscle development in agricultural species.

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