Updating land cover maps satellite images

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To study the results of several techniques, data of Landsat 5 TM (30 m), ERS 1 (30 m), Ikonos (4 m) and PHARUS (4 m) were used.The focus was on data of urban areas in the Netherlands.The obtained results clearly showed changes in forestation within the 43-year-long period, as well as changes in primary erosion and urbanization, while at the level of agricultural land, slight changes were found.The paper also involved transition of social factors from 1969 to 2012, expressed as a change between the earth and forest layer.Geographical information in the form of maps is continuously subjected to change, especially in urban areas.Therefore maps have to be updated, which can be done using satellite remote sensing techniques since many satellites are in orbit today.To establish the correct prospect in observation of a particular territory, it is sufficient to know a single parameter.But if we observe more parameters, we can establish more conditioned relations.

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Although the methods can be improved, more information is required, e.g.Classification of the images was done using spectral information, texture and in one case information on the relation between adjacent objects.Non-parametric techniques were applied because most textures appeared to be non- Gaussian distributed.With the help of time scales the connection between social and natural changes was established.The changes from 1969 to 2012 were observed through three processes: forestation, erosion, and urbanization.

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