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The final, and most important, element of camp is humor, which Babuscio calls "the strategy of camp: a means of dealing with a hostile environment and, in the process, of defining a positive identity" (126).
Queer camp humor, according to Babuscio, consists primarily of "bitter wit," a cutting irony based on the knowledge that society's joke is on you and a comic downplaying of resultant frustration and fear.
Both camp and fan parody complicate traditional narratives by appropriating and refiguring them.
In each case, a marginalized group seizes on an iconic cultural production and draws attention to its ridiculousness through playful, often reverent, exploitation.
She leads the guards, routinely beats the men of the palace in armed combat and takes female companions to court balls (much to the chagrin of the many women who admire her, including Marie Antoinette, whose care she is charged with).
and the cross-dresser may seem cutting edge by American standards, they raise few eyebrows in Japanese society given the long history of gender performativity on the Japanese stage.
In traditional Kabuki, which has been male dominated since the 1600s, male actors known as ('female likeness') represented a model for feminine expression and behavior that women found compelling, and which they sometimes emulated" (Fiorillo).
Thus, while seems innocuous (and often even somewhat condescending toward both fan culture and cross-dressing), its engagement with these fundamentally disruptive traditions suggests a subtle undermining of Japanese patriarchal and heteronormative traditions.
Despite the entrenchment of established gender roles in Japanese society, is a liminal figure who is "visually and physically neither male nor female; his romantic and erotic interests are directed at other beautiful boys, but his tastes are not exclusively homosexual; he lives and loves outside the heteropatriarchal world inhabited by his readers" (Welker 842).