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A relatively new technique, surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI), provides a means to exploit low abundance proteins and peptides as MOA-specific biomarkers.
SELDI can be thought of as an expansion of the matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI) method (Hutchens and Yip, 1993).
Both techniques use laser desorption and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry to determine protein and peptide molecular mass, as indicated by their mass-to-charge ratio ().
For SELDI, sample preparation, fractionation, and TOF analysis can be performed directly on the selective chip surface, whereas MALDI analysis typically requires separate preparative and fractionation steps prior to sample application onto a MALDI plate.
Estrogen-responsive mass spectral biomarker peaks were identified by comparison of E2-treated and control plasma spectra.
Thirteen potential protein biomarkers with a range from 1 to 13 k Da were up- or downregulated in E2-treated fish and their performance as estrogenic effects markers was evaluated by comparing spectra from control, estrogen agonist, and nonagonist stressor–treated males and normal female fish plasma.
We show for the first time the ability to classify chemicals by MOA using a small fish model and SELDI protein profiling.One of the biomarkers, mass-to-charge ratio 3025.5, was identified by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry as zona radiata protein, fragment 2.The weak environmental estrogens MXC, BPA, and TPP elicited protein expression profiles consistent with the estrogen expression model.A comparison of protein expression in two groups can be used to discover differences in up- or downregulated proteins between groups.The molecular biomarkers or fingerprints derived from such analyses can be used to classify samples into two or more categories, i.e., a “disease” state versus a “normal” state, and can be used as a screening or diagnostic test of MOA-specific activity.