Amino acid dating forensic science
The methods most often used are based on visually determining various morphological, age-related changes in the skeleton (or teeth, although odontological methods are not reviewed in this paper).
As such, these methods are all relative: ie, they do not obtain results in calendar years but estimates of the age at death, often with a rather large range.
The method first described by Lovejoy et al, operates with rather detailed points systems for grading different features, which should limit some error.
A final nonsynovial joint is the sternal rib end, where the bone rib articulates with cartilage between the rib and the sternum.
Generally, most age assessment methods rely on identifying certain age-related skeletal traits, then setting these traits in a system of stages or scores, which results in an estimated age interval.
However, more recently, methods that rely on biochemical analyses, as well as isotope, heavy metals, and radiocarbon analyses, have been introduced that are also applicable to other tissues (although most methods still focus on skeletal and dental tissues).
Synovial joints may also be used to evaluate age, in the sense that development of arthrosis may give an indication of age.
While arthrosis is age-related clinically, it is also related to numerous other things, including genetic makeup, nutrition, and loading. However, for the experienced investigator, seeing arthritic developments on joint surfaces will indicate older age, and this will probably form part of the final age assessment, to some extent.
Keywords: skeletal, aging, human remains Introduction and background Identification of human remains almost always involves assessment of the age at death of the individual.Described by Broca in 1875, it has since been tested extensively – although, with the overall finding that, even though there seems to be an age-related trend in the complete ossification of the sutures (seen as obliteration), this trend is, perhaps, more tenuous than for the other methods described below.The latter standard, especially, which also utilizes some minor sutures of the lateral aspect of the skull, is commonly used.The investigator compares the morphology of the pubic symphysis of a given case against these stages, then reads the equivalent age interval.The stages reflect the changing morphology of the surface, from a juvenile aspect, which looks to some extent like the epiphyseal surface of a long bone (billowing, undulating surface morphology, without rim phenomena), to a more aged look (disappearing billowing, replaced by more dense and less structured bone, pitting, and bone growth along the rim).